990 Large Wheel Loader

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Engine ModelC27 Cat®
Rated Speed1,800/min
Engine Power - ISO 14396752 HP (561 kW)
Gross Power - SAE J1995766 HP (571 kW)
Cat Large Wheel Loaders are designed with durability built in, ensuring maximum availability through multiple life cycles. With optimized performance and simplified serviceability, our machines allow you to move more material efficiently and safely at a lower cost per ton. The Cat 990 Wheel Loader has been a proven performer in mines, quarries and industrial applications around the world. The 990 brings all new levels of performance, safety, operator comfort and efficiency.


Engine ModelC27 Cat®
Rated Speed1,800/min
Engine Power - ISO 14396752 HP (561 kW)
Gross Power - SAE J1995766 HP (571 kW)
Net Power - SAE J1349 - Standard Ambient699 HP (521 kW)
Net Power - SAE J1349 - High Ambient648 HP (483 kW)
Bore5.4 in (137.2 mm)
Stroke6 in (152.4 mm)
Displacement1649.5 in³ (27.03 l)
Peak Torque - 1,200 rpm2624 lb/ft (3557 N·m)
Torque Rise18 % (18 %)
EmissionsU.S. EPA TIer 4 Final and EU Stage V emission standards or U.S. EPA Tier 2 and EU Stage II equivalent
Transmission TypeCat planetary power shift
Forward - 14.5 mile/h (7.3 km/h)
Forward - 28.3 mile/h (13.3 km/h)
Forward - 314.2 mile/h (22.9 km/h)
Reverse - 14.9 mile/h (7.9 km/h)
Reverse - 29.1 mile/h (14.7 km/h)
Reverse - 315.5 mile/h (24.9 km/h)
Direct Drive - Forward 1Lock-up disabled
Direct Drive - Forward 28.5 mile/h (13.7 km/h)
Direct Drive - Forward 315.2 mile/h (24.5 km/h)
Operating Weight178517 lb (80974 kg)
Direct Drive - Reverse 15.4 mile/h (8.7 km/h)
Direct Drive - Reverse 29.6 mile/h (15.4 km/h)
Rated Payload - Standard17.5 ton (US) (15.9 t)
Direct Drive - Reverse 316.4 mile/h (26.4 km/h)
Rated Payload - High Lift17.5 ton (US) (15.9 t)
NoteTravel speeds based on Michelin 45/65R39 LD D2**L5 tires.
Bucket Capacity Range8.6 m³ – 10.0 m³ (11.25 yd³ – 13.0 yd³)
Cat Truck Match - Standard773-775
Cat Truck Match - High Lift775-777
Lift/Tilt System - CircuitPositive flow control
Lift/Tilt SystemVariable displacement piston
Maximum Flow at 1,800 rpm (1)240 gal/min (910 l/min)
Cylinders, Double Acting - Lift, Bore and Stroke235 mm × 1287 mm (9.3 in × 50.7 in)
Cylinders, Double Acting - Tilt, Bore and Stroke292.1 mm × 820 mm (11.5 in × 32.3 in)
Pilot SystemOpen loop and pressure reducing
Relief Valve Setting - Main507 psi (3500 kPa)
Relief Valve Setting - Lift/Tilt4786 psi (33000 kPa)
Rack Back4.3 s (4.3 s)
Raise8.2 s (8.2 s)
Dump2.9 s (2.9 s)
Lower3.7 s (3.7 s)
Lower Float Down3.6 s (3.6 s)
Total Hydraulic Cycle Time - Empty Bucket13.8 s (13.8 s)
Steering System - CircuitPilot, load sensing
Steering System - PumpPiston, variable displacement
Maximum Flow at 1,400 rpm96.2 gal/min (364 l/min)
Relief Valve Setting - Steering5004 psi (34500 kPa)
Total Steering Angle70°
Air ConditioningThe air conditioning system on this machine contains the fluorinated greenhouse gas refrigerant R134a (Global Warming Potential = 1430). The system contains 2.7 kg of refrigerant which has a CO2 equivalent of 3.861 metric tonnes (4.256 tons).
Oscillation Angle8.5°
BrakesISO 3450: 2011
Fuel Tank294.3 gal (US) (1114 l)
Cooling System54.9 gal (US) (208 l)
Engine Crankcase20 gal (US) (75.7 l)
Transmission29.1 gal (US) (110 l)
Differential - Final Drives - Front71.6 gal (US) (271 l)
Differential - Final Drives - Rear68.9 gal (US) (261 l)
Hydraulic System Factory Fill210 gal (US) (795 l)
Hydraulic Tank - Implement and Hydraulic Fan68.9 gal (US) (261 l)
Hydraulic Tank - Steering and Braking34.9 gal (US) (132 l)
NoteAll nonroad U.S. EPA Tier 4 diesel engines are required to use only Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuels containing 15 ppm (mg/kg) sulfur or less. Biodiesel blends up to B20 (20% blend by volume) are acceptable when blended with 15 ppm (mg/kg) sulfur or less ULSD. B20 should meet ASTM D7467 specification (biodiesel blend stock should meet Cat biodiesel spec, ASTM D6751 or EN 14214. Cat DEO‑ULS™ or oils that meet the Cat ECF-3, API CJ‑4, and ACEA E9 specification are required. For further fluid specifications and guidelines, visit: http://parts.cat.com/cda/files/3244668/7/SEBU6250-19.pdf.
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008)65.5 dB(A) (65.5 dB(A))
Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008)115 dB(A) (115 dB(A))
Operator Sound Level (ISO 6396:2008)65.5 dB(A) (65.5 dB(A))
Machine Sound Level (ISO 6395:2008)113 dB(A) (113 dB(A))
Bucket Capacities8.6 m³ – 10.0 m³ (11.25 yd³ – 13.0 yd³)

Benefits and Features

  • Cat C27 engine is built and tested to meet your most demanding applications.
  • Longer engine life and improved fuel efficiency with reduced rated speed.
  • Designed for longer life, rebuildability, and higher resale value.
  • Maximum responsiveness with Steering and Integrated Control (STIC™).
  • Moves more material more efficiently with improved power and control.
  • Durable construction withstands the toughest loading conditions and multiple life cycles.

  • Two engine emission options are available that meet U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final and EU Stage V emission standards or U.S. EPA Tier 2 and EU Stage II equivalent.
  • Up to 10% more payload per pass on truck-loading applications with Performance Series Buckets.
  • Payload increase to optimize pass on 775 trucks.
  • Positive Flow Control (PFC) hydraulic system increases efficiency, bucket feel, and responsiveness with consistent performance.
  • Excellent visibility to the bucket edges and work area through a Z-bar linkage.
  • Planetary power shift transmission for maximum uptime.
  • Convenient, responsive, electro-hydraulic controls increase operator productivity.
  • Superior digging, higher bucket fill factors, reduced dig times.
  • Integrated steering and transmission controls.
  • Operators can check tire pressure during operation with any change sending a fault code to VisionLink®, preventing premature tire failure. 

  • Up to 54% fuel efficiency material per gallon of fuel (27% less fuel consumption).
  • Economy mode for reduced rated engine speed and reduced fuel consumption.
  • Positive flow-control hydraulics for full flow on demand at lower engine speeds.
  • Engine Idle Shutdown for less fuel used while idling.
  • Fully integrated electronic engine controls make your fuel go farther.

  • Developed to monitor, manage, and enhance your jobsite operations.
  • Payload provides accurate weighing* of the materials you are loading and hauling. Payload data is displayed in real-time to improve productivity and reduce overloading.
  • Detect enhances awareness of the environment around working equipment and provides alerts to help keep people and assets safe on the jobsite.
  • VisionLink wirelessly connects you to your equipment, giving you access to essential information you need to know to run your business.
  • Gain valuable insight into how your machine or fleet is performing.
  • Optional Advanced Productivity subscription provides comprehensive actionable information to help you manage and improve the productivity and profitability of your operations.
*Not legal for trade

  • 10% lower maintenance costs.
  • Grouped service points.
  • Electro-hydraulic controls.
  • Swing-out engine compartment service doors.
  • Ecology drains to prevent spilled contaminants.
  • Ground level access to transmission control valves.
  • Vehicle Information Management System (VIMS™) notifications to resolve problems before failure.
  • Longer life, rebuildability, and high resale value.

  • Standard stairway lighting.
  • Left- and right-hand stairs with 45-degree angle.
  • Standard Cat Vision, rear vision camera system.
  • Pressurized cabin with filtered and reduced sound levels.

  • Best-in-class operator comfort and ergonomics.
  • Premium seat with heated and actively cooled leather, adjustable lumbar support, air adjustable bolsters on the seat and backrest, seat cushion tilt adjustment, and adjustable-length seat cushion.
  • Easy-to-reach levers and controls with seat-mounted implement pod to reduce fatigue.
  • Ergonomic switch placement and displays with large backlit switches, LED indicators, and ISO symbols.
  • Optional heated mirrors.
  • Two-position rocker switch activates the electro-hydraulic parking brake.
  • Reduced vibrations from isolated cab mounts and seat air suspension.
  • Automatic cab temperature controls.
  • Achieve precise positioning for easy loading in tight areas with 35 degrees of steering articulation.
  • Precise machine control by load-sensing hydraulic steering system.

  • Designed to meet the demands of millyard applications.
  • Designed for durability, ensuring availability in multiple life cycles.
  • Equipped with Economy Mode to save on fuel consumption by the use of On Demand Throttle.
  • Equipped with Impleller Clutch Torque Convereter (ICTC) and Rimpull Control System (RCS) to reduce tire slippage and fuel efficiency.
  • Full hydraulic flow down to 1,400 engine rpm by using hydraulic flow sharing technology.
  • Equipped with 45 degree angle access ladders and standard Cat Vision for enhanced safety.
  • Cat forks are designed for maximum productivity and durability.
  • Integrates front camera mounting location for maximum visibility to the entire fork tips during truck unloading.

  • World class safety, operator comfort and efficiency in pit digging and skull handling applications.
  • Efficiency of manual throttle and ergonomics of throttle lock.
  • Excellent visibility to the bucket edges and work area through a Z-bar design.
  • Equipped with extra heat protection to key hoses and harnesses for improved reliability.

  • Best-in-class transmission for long life and consistent, smooth shifting; specifically designed for mining applications.
  • Advanced filtration system for extended performance and reliability of the hydraulic system.
  • Advanced Impeller Clutch Torque Converter (ICTC) and Rimpull Control System (RCS) reduce tire slippage and wear, improve fuel efficiency, and reduce cost-per-ton.
  • Linkage pin joints have optional auto-lube system to ensure long life.
  • Frame resists torsional shock and twisting forces.
  • Heavy-duty steering cylinder mounts and axle mounting ensure increased structural integrity.

Standard Equipment

  • Standard and optional equipment may vary. Consult your Cat dealer for details.
  • Air conditioner and heater with automatic temperature control
  • Cab, sound-suppressed pressurized, protective structure (ROPS/FOPS)
  • 12V power port for mobile phone or laptop connection
  • Cat Vision, rear vision camera system
  • Cigar lighter and ashtray
  • Coat hook
  • Electro-hydraulic tilt and lift controls (seat mounted)
  • Flip-up armrest
  • Heater and defroster
  • Horn, electric
  • Implement hydraulic lockout
  • Instrumentation, gauges:
    – Engine coolant temperature
    – Fuel level
    – Ground speed
    – Gear
    – Hydraulic oil temperature
    – Speedometer/tachometer
    – Torque converter temperature
  • Instrumentation, warning indicators:
    – Action alert system, three category
    – Automatic transmission model enable status
    – Brake malfunction
    – Bucket float status
    – Delayed engine shutdown status
    – Engine idle shutdown status
    – Engine malfunction
    – Fuel economy mode enable status
    – Hydraulic lockout
    – Lockup clutch enable status
    – Low fuel level
    – Parking brake status
    – Rimpull control enable status
    – Seatbelt warning
    – Secondary steering (if equipped)
    – Throttle lock status
    – Transmission gear
  • Keypad, control with indicator lights:
    – Auto trans mode speed range
    – Auto/manual transmission mode
    – Fuel economy mode
    – Implement kickout
    – Lockup clutch
    – Reduced rimpull
    – Throttle lock
  • Light, dome (cab)
  • Lunchbox and beverage holders
  • Mirrors, rearview (externally mounted)
  • Seat, leather/cloth, air suspension, heated/cooled
  • Seat belt, retractable, 76 mm (3 in) wide
  • STIC control system with steering lock
  • Tinted glass
  • Trainer seat with lap belt
  • Vital Information Management System (VIMS) 3G with graphical information display: external data port, customizable operator profiles, cycle timer, and integral Cat Production Measurement
    – Wet-arm wipers/washers (front, rear and corner) intermittent front wiper
  • Brakes, full hydraulic, enclosed, oil-disc
  • Axle-shaft oil-disc service brake
  • Electro hydraulic parking brake
  • Case drain screens
  • Cat clean emission module (Tier 4 only)
  • Demand fan
  • Engine Cat C27
  • Fuel priming pump (electric)
  • Ground level engine shutoff, bumper
  • Mufflers (under hood) (Tier 2 equivalent only)
  • Precleaner, engine air intake
  • Radiator, Aluminum Modular (AMR)
  • Separated cooling system
  • Starting aid, (ether) manual override
  • Throttle Lock
  • Torque Converter, Impeller Clutch with lock-up clutch feature and rimpull control system
  • Transmission, 534 mm (21 in) planetary power shift (electronic) (3F/3R)
  • Alarm, back-up
  • Alternator, 150 amp
  • Batteries, maintenance free (2 – 1,400 CCA)
  • Converter, 10/15 amp, 24V to 12V
  • Deutsch component connectors
  • Electrical system, 24V
  • Electronic transmission control
  • Lighting system, halogen (front and rear) lighting, access stairway, engine compartment
  • Starter, electric
  • Starter lockout in bumper
  • Starting receptacle for emergency start
  • Transmission lockout in bumper
  • Automatic bucket tilt/lift kickouts electronically adjustable from cab
  • Axle temperature sensor
  • Battery disconnect and jump start receptacle, bumper
  • Coupling, Caterpillar O-ring face seals
  • Economy mode with on demand throttle
  • Emergency platform egress
  • Engine, crankcase, 500 hour interval with CH4
  • Engine idle management features:
    – Auto idle kickdown
    – Delayed engine shutdown
    – Engine idle shutdown
  • Fenders, steel (front)
  • Guards, crankcase and power train
  • Grouped/labeled lube points
  • Hitch, drawbar with pin
  • Hoses, Cat XT™
  • Oil sampling valves
  • Positive flow control hydraulic system
  • Product Link
  • Sight Gauges: hydraulic tanks, steering/fan and implement/brake, and transmission
  • Stairway, left and right rear access
  • Steering, load sensing
  • Toe kicks
  • Vandalism protection caplocks
  • Venturi stack
  • Premixed 50% concentration of extended life coolant with freeze protection to –34° C (–29° F)

Optional Equipment

  • Standard and optional equipment may vary. Consult your Cat dealer for details.
  • –50° C (–58° F) antifreeze
  • Engine oil change system, high speed, Wiggins
  • Engine block heater 120V or 240V
  • High ambient cooling – software
  • Cab precleaner, powered
  • AM/FM/CD/MP3 radio
  • Satellite Sirius radio with Bluetooth
  • LED warning strobe
  • CB radio ready
  • Window sun shade
  • Front and rear roading fenders
  • Fast fill fuel system (Shaw-Aero)
  • Axle oscillation stop
  • Heavy duty cab mounts